The bill, known as the patriot clause, aims to penalize individuals who harm the national interest, including those who meet foreign representatives to encourage sanctions or overthrow the government.
The government blames opposition groups for Western sanctions and wants to curtail meetings between opposition members and foreign officials.
The legislation, which received a 99-17 vote in parliament, faces constitutional concerns regarding freedom of association and free speech.
The bill will proceed to the senate for further approval before becoming law.
Critics argue that upholding human rights, not criminalizing criticism, is the way to address sanctions. The bill was passed alongside amendments that include minimum sentences for rape.